Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Ayub Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Zia Ul Haq

To compare the era of Ayub Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Zia Ul Haq it is essential that all the political and economic aspects are considered. After analyzing all the aspects can we then decide that which era benefited Pakistan the most. By benefit it means achieving high economic growth, human development and decreasing corruption.
Political Aspect:
Ayub Khan
A tremendous amount of goodwill accompanied Khan's assumption of political power and motivated him to institute deep structural changes in Pakistan’s society, economy, and political structure. Older Pakistanis still remember the beginning of his era as a time when trains ran on time, shops were clean, and corruption was punished. The imposition of martial law in 1958 targeted "antisocial" practices such as abducting women and children, black marketeering, smuggling, and hoarding. Many in the Civil Service of Pakistan and Police Service of Pakistan were investigated and punished for corruption, misconduct, inefficiency, or subversive activities. Ayub Khan's message was clear: he, not the civil servants, was in control.
Sterner measures were used against the politicians. The PRODA prescribed fifteen years' exclusion from public office for those found guilty of corruption. The Elective Bodies Disqualification Order (EBDO) authorized special tribunals to try former politicians for "misconduct," an infraction not clearly defined. Prosecution could be avoided if the accused agreed not to be a candidate for any elective body for a period of seven years. About 7,000 individuals were "EBDOed." Some people, including Suhrawardy, who was arrested, fought prosecution.
His initiatives like the system of Basic Democracies, the Constitution of 1962, the Land Reforms of 1959, and the Family Laws Ordinance of 1961 were all significant departures from the way political business had been conducted in Pakistan in the first post-independence decade.
In the realm of political participation, Khan introduced the system of "basic democracies" in 1960. It consisted of a network of local self-governing bodies that provided a link between the government and the people. Primary governing units were set up to conduct local affair and their members were elected by constituencies composed of 800 to 1,000 Pakistanis. However many suspected that the more than 80,000 "basic democrats" were simply a tool in the hands of the incumbent to deliver the votes he needed to win. Ayub Khan also introduced Land Reforms of 1959 in which the government imposed a ceiling of 200 hectares of irrigated land and 400 hectares of un irrigated land in the West Wing for a single holding. This reform created a new class of farmers having medium-sized holdings. the Family Laws Ordinance of 1961 focused on the Muslim families and dealt with issues such as who will receive the wealth of the deceased person, the divorce procedure etc. When the United States began to rearm India after China's invasion of northern India in 1962, Khan established close relations with and received substantial military aid from China. However he couldn’t resolve the Kashmir dispute with India which worsened, culminating in a two-week war in 1965. The failure to gain Kashmir and not being able to improve the human development, which included education, health poverty etc, led him to announce in late 1968 that he would not stand for reelection. Riots continued, and he resigned his office on March 26, 1969.

Muhammad Zia ul-Haq
Zia's political survival rested on his skill in wrong-footing opponents, and on the favorable external environment following the December 1979 Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. This transformed him overnight from an international pariah to America's front-line ally in the fight against Communism.
Zia embarked upon an Islamization program in the country that incorporated a number of initiatives aimed at making Pakistan a more Islamic country. Zia introduced special shariat courts, with Islamic rules of evidence and punishments for certain crimes. Further measures included the provision of Islamic banking facilities and the government collection of zakat (alms) and ushr (agricultural tax). Islamization which was stoutly opposed by women's groups and human rights activists stirred up sectarian tensions between Sunnis and Shias. Zia's introduction of Hudood laws failed despite their popularity because of the absence of mass education, deep corruption in Pakistan's judicial-legal system, and the absence of a desire in the prevailing system to understand the whole new system and to apply it with the level of piety and caution it was applied at the time of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. The corrupt police simply used the presence of three laws, leftover criminal laws that were a legacy of the British on the subcontinent, martial law, and Shariah law to extract a higher level of bribery. Thankfully, no innocent person was hurt and no punishment actually awarded. However, the Zia regime’s punishment of its PPP opposition with public flogging, in accordance with martial law, was used to give Hudood laws a bad name in the Pakistani public’s eyes. Zia's other Islamization institutions are still alive, such as the Sharia Court and the International Islamic University in the nation’s capital, Islamabad. The most admiring thing about this era was that in a world where even leading Western countries complain about taking in refugees, Pakistan's acceptance and support of three to four million Afghan refugees was an extra-ordinary act of humanity which has gone largely unrecognized. Karachi experienced mounting ethnic violence from 1986 onwards. Clashes between mohajirs and Pakhtuns, later extended to the Sindhi community. The growing lawlessness was encourage by the ready availability of weapons and drugs as a result of the Afghan War.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Bhutto introduced a new constitution with a modified parliamentary and federal system. He attempted to control and reforms the civil service and took steps to revitalize a stagnant economy and ameliorate conditions for the poor under the banner of Islamic socialism. Bhutto's most visible success, however, was in the international arena, where he employed his diplomatic skills. He negotiated a satisfactory peace settlement with India in 1972, built new links between Pakistan and the oil-exporting Islamic countries to the west, and generally was effective in repairing Pakistan's image in the aftermath of the war.
In April 1972, Bhutto lifted martial law and convened the National Assembly, which consisted of members elected from the West Wing in December 1970 (plus two from the East Wing who decided their loyalties were with a united Pakistan). The standing controversies about the role of Islam, provincial autonomy, and the form of government--presidential or parliamentary--remained on the agenda. There was much jostling for position among the three major political groups: the PPP, most powerful in Punjab and Sindh; the National Awami Party (NAP) and the Jamiat-ul-Ulama-i-Islam (JUI), both based in the North- West Frontier Province and Baluchistan. The provincial assemblies were constituted from those elected in December 1970. There was much tension during the process of drafting a new constitution, especially from members from the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan. Bhutto reached some accommodation with opposition leaders from those two provinces on the matter of gubernatorial appointment and constitutional principle.
The 1973 Constitution set up a bicameral legislature at the Center consisting of two Houses, the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly consisted of 200 seats elected directly for duration of five years. The President on the advice of the Prime Minister could dissolve the National Assembly. The Senate was to consist of 63 members; each province was to elect 14 members. In the Provincial Government, each province will have a Governor appointed by the President. The Provincial Assembly for each province consisted of 240 seats for the Punjab, 100 seats for Sindh, 80 seats for N. W. F. P., and 40 seats for Baluchistan.
The 1973 Constitution provided a free and independent Judiciary. The Constitution guaranteed a right to the citizens; to be protected by law, and imposed two duties on them, loyalty to the Republic and obedience to the law. Any person who was found to abrogate or attempt or conspire to abrogate or subvert the Constitution was to be treated guilty of high treason. The Constitution conferred several kinds of fundamental rights to the people such as the right to life, liberty, equality and freedom of speech, trade and association. The Constitution also declared the laws inconsistent with or in derogatory to fundamental rights as null and void.
In light of the previous experience, the Constitution of 1973 was more Islamic in character than the previous ones. Emphasis was made to establish a real Islamic system in all aspects of social life. Keeping this objective in mind, more Islamic provisions were laid down in the Constitution of 1973. The Constitution recognized Islam as the religion of the country and enjoined upon the State to serve the cause of Islam and to bring all existing laws in conformity with Islam. The Islamic Advisory Council was set up to recommend ways and means to bring existing laws of the country in conformity with the Islamic principles.
Economic Aspects:
Ayub Khan
The period of Khan's government is called the 'decade of development.' Since then, no such spurt of development has been witnessed in Pakistan. He introduced a plan known as Second Five Year plan The Second Five-Year Plan (1960-65) surpassed its major goals when all sectors showed substantial growth. The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities in which a great deal of profit could be made, while the government acted in those sectors of the economy where private business was reluctant to operate. This mix of private enterprise and social responsibility was hailed as a model that other developing countries could follow. Pakistan's success, however, partially depended on generous infusions of foreign aid, particularly from the United States.
Ayub Khan also tried to improve the agriculture sector. For this purpose he introduced the green revolution which was the development of improved seeds in order to help the country achieve self-sufficiency in food grains in the process. As part of his green revolution, high yielding variety seeds like Mexi-Pak wheat, Irri-Pak rice, and Nayab 78 cotton were developed and popularized, along with the Pakistan's favorite citrus fruit: the Kinno. Three multipurpose dams, Warsak, Mangla, and Tarbela were built, the last being the largest is earth-filled dam in the world at the time of its establishment. Khan’s land reforms were practically sabotaged by the country’s feudal lords, who controlled the local revenue officers responsible for implementing them. Nonetheless, the agrarian reforms did deliver for the people of Pakistan. To improve the exports of Pakistan the Export Bonus Vouchers Scheme was introduced in 1959 and tax incentives stimulated new industrial entrepreneurs and exporters. Bonus vouchers facilitated access to foreign exchange for imports of industrial machinery and raw materials. Tax concessions were offered for investment in less-developed areas.
Ayub was skillful in maintaining cordial relations with the United States which helped to stimulate substantial economic and military aid to Pakistan. The signing in 1954 of a Mutual Defense agreement with the US, led to a total economic assistance of $500 million, or 2.8% of GDP. The facts and figure which shows the economic development of Pakistan are as follows:
□ GDP growth was slow during the 1950s but accelerated to 6.7 % during the 1960s.
□ Inflation rate during the period 1960-70 was 3.3% compared to 7.1%.
□ External resource inflows into West Pakistan were 6% of GDP in 1959-60 and rose to a record level of 10.5 %.
□ National savings rose to 10.5% in 1964-5.
□ Exports on Raw Cotton accounted for 28% of export earnings in 1969-70
□ By 1964-5, Balance of Payment deficit had risen to 6.8% of GDP.
Although President Ayub Khan's agrarian reforms did result in higher agrarian yield, and his industrialization efforts resulted in the growth of capital, he was criticized for making "the rich richer and the poor poorer or the trickle down effect. Khan has also been criticized for heavy dependence on foreign aid and the inability to create jobs.
Muhammad Zia ul-Haq
Zia ul-Haq introduced Islamization policy which not only affected the political aspect but the economic aspect also. Zakat used to be collected by the government in the early days of Islam and distributed among the poor. Zia called upon Pakistan’s economists and Islamic scholars to devise a program that would use Zakat as a vehicle to deal with poverty in the nation. After a year of discussion, the Zakat and Ushr Ordinance of 1979 was promulgated on June 20th 1980. Under this order, a five-tiered structure was formed to take care of Zakat, starting from the Central Zakat Council at the federal level to a local Zakat committee for each compact block of 3,000 to 5,000 persons. On all savings accounts, a 2.5 percent per annum Zakat was instituted. Despite some problems, Zakat was nevertheless collected and through the system of citizens’ committees, it was distributed among the poor and needy. According to a Gallup Pakistan survey, 80 percent of the Pakistanis surveyed felt that the system was relatively corruption-free. It was said it was the first time a modern government coded Zakat into law and implemented it.
On Zia's call, several leading economists and Islamic scholars worked together to develop an applicable set of models and laws for the implementation of Islamic Economics. Several international conferences were held and an Institute of Islamic Economics was established. Interest-free banking was partially introduced and an implementation program was developed to see how Pakistan's economy could be transformed. The resulting momentum regarding Islamic economics continues to reverberate across the globe today, as hundreds of Islamic banks have popped up worldwide. American icon Fannie Mae, along with some leading banks, has invested in Islamic models of financing. The Dow Jones has also come up with an Islamic Index. The facts and figure which shows the economic development of Pakistan are as follows:
□ GDP growth averaged to 6.6 % between 1971-1977.
□ Public spending on education did increase to 2.7 of GNP by 1987-1988
□ Domestic debt increased from 20.38% of GDP in mid 1981 to 42.9% of GDP in mid 1988.
□ Defense expenditure increased to 7% from 5 % of GDP over the period.
□ Terms of trade in 1987 -88 was 96.32.
Rapid growth, widespread prosperity, and relatively stable prices made the Zia period appear to be an era of exceptional political and economic stability in Pakistan’s history. Like Ayub, Zia relied heavily on the bureaucracy for economic management, and under the able guidance of Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan the bureaucrats did a fair job of short-term economic management partly under pressure from international financial institutions which provided critical balance of payments support in the early and mid-1980s. The flexible exchange rate policy strengthened export incentives and improved the climate for private investment. The initial reduction in budget deficits, through additional taxation and efforts after 1980, to reduce subsidies and to bring agricultural prices in line with international prices helped economic growth and moderated the inflationary pressures. That high economic growth was partly a matter of luck and reflected the influence of exogenous economic developments, notably the boom in worker remittances, does not detract from the steady and more or less consistent day to day management of economic policies during the 1980s. However, major structural weaknesses remained in the economy and indeed were intensified in some instances. Even though medium-term economic planning was revived in 1978, long-term policy issues were either not pursued with any seriousness or suffered due to poor implementation. A major criticism was the growth in public spending from 23.5 per cent of GDP in 1976-7 to 27 percent in 1987-8. Government expenditures adjusted for inflation increased nearly 150 per cent during 1977-88. Since revenue growth was slow, the budget deficits had risen to a unsustainable level of over 8 per cent of GDP in the final years of the Zia regime – essentially mortgaging future production and price stability.
Finally, the two major policy problems inherited from the 1960s and the 1970s — the inelasticity of the tax system and the strong anti-export bias of the trade




Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Bhutto claimed success for his economic policies. The gross national product and the rate of economic growth climbed. Inflation fell from 25 percent in fiscal year 1972 to 6 percent in FY 1976, although other economic measures he introduced did not perform as well.
Bhutto pointed out that his foreign policy had brought Pakistan prestige in the Islamic world, peace if not friendship with India, and self-respect in dealings with the great powers. He felt assured of victory in any election. Therefore, with commitment to a constitutional order at stake, in January 1977 he announced he would hold national and provincial assembly elections in March.
The Nationalization Order, 1972 provided for the nationalization of industry in Iron and steel sector, basic metals, heavy engineering, heavy electrical, assembly and manufacture of motor vehicles and tractors, heavy and basic chemicals, petrochemicals, cements, public utilities, power generation, transmission and distribution, gas and oil refineries.
31 industrial units were taken over under the nationalization order but it was alleged subsequently that nationalization was selective, to pick up some and to exclude others in the same fields. General Zia privatized the Ittefaq foundry nearly eight years later on the ground that Ittefaq foundry was nationalized while several others of same size were not. However the industries whose nationalization was omitted by Bhutto were not mentioned.
The nationalization order had excluded the private sector from operating in key economic fields and therefore, several industrial licenses were cancelled which included Adamjee deutez, Shahnawaz Industries, Fecto tractors, Arusa Industries for manufacturing tractors and Monnoo motors for progressive assembly of Toyota cars. The nationalization order was followed within a fortnight by another order banning the managing agency system under which companies were appointing persons to be sole purchasers for sale or distribution. The managing agency system was one of the medieval systems practiced only on subcontinent which provided the mechanism through which control over industrial sector was concentrated in a few hands. Under the managing agency system, the corporate sector was controlled by a handful of managing agents who perpetuated their control over the affairs of the companies, without being accountable to the shareholders.
The new labor policy provided for old age pensions, group insurance and other means of social security including free education for the children of the workers. Administrative reforms ensured a better, organized and service oriented bureaucracy. Education, literacy and healthcare were targeted as key focus areas. Heavy industry was brought in for the first time in the country, creating immense employment opportunities as well as transfer of technology from the developed nations. The establishment of the country’s first-ever Steel Mill could be cited as an example in this regard. Quaid-e-Awam also owes credit for establishment of the second seaport Port Qasim, near Karachi, thus laying the foundation of economic self-reliance. However, major structural weaknesses remained in the economy and indeed were intensified in some instances. Even though medium-term economic planning was revived in 1978, long-term policy issues were either not pursued with any seriousness or suffered due to poor implementation. A major criticism was the growth in public spending from 23.5 per cent of GDP in 1976-7 to 27 percent in 1987-8. Government expenditures adjusted for inflation increased nearly 150 per cent during 1977-88. Since revenue growth was slow, the budget deficits had risen to a unsustainable level of over 8 per cent of GDP in the final years of the Zia regime – essentially mortgaging future production and price stability.
Finally, the two major policy problems inherited from the 1960s and the 1970s — the inelasticity of the tax system and the strong anti-export bias of the trade.
The facts and figure which shows the economic development of Pakistan are as follows:
□ GDP growth rate fell to 3.8% between1971-77.
□ The total government spending on education increased from 1.6% to 2% of GNP over 1972-77.
□ The ratio of taxes to GNP improved to 12% in late 1970s.
□ Rural poverty incidence fell from 54% in 1969-70 to 41% in 1979.
□ Domestic savings averaged < 8 during this period.
□ Current account deficit averaged 6.5% of GDP.
□ Inflation fell from 25% in FY 1972 to 6% in FY 1976.
Conclusion:
Ayub Khan's legacy is mixed, he was opposed to democracy believing like any other dictator that parliamentary democracy was not suited for the people of his country. Like many subsequent military dictators he was contemptuous of politicians and political parties. However, during his early years in office, he sided with the Americans against the Soviets, and in return received billions of dollars in aid which resulted in enormous economic growth. Ayub began to lose both power and popularity. On one occasion, while visiting East Pakistan, there was a failed attempt to assassinate him, though this was not reported in the press of the day. In 1971 when war broke out, Ayub Khan was in West Pakistan and did not comment on the events of the war. He died in 1974.
After assuming power as Chief Martial Law Administrator, Zia-ul-Haq promised to hold National and Provincial Assembly elections in the next 90 days and to hand over power to the representatives of the Nation. However, in October 1977, he announced the postponement of the electoral plan and decided to start an accountability process of the politicians. In a statement, he said that he changed his decision due to the strong public demand for the scrutiny of political leaders who had indulged in malpractice in the past. With the retirement of Fazal Ilahi, Zia-ul-Haq also assumed the office of President of Pakistan on September 16, 1978. In the absence of a Parliament, Zia-ul-Haq decided to set up an alternative system. He introduced Majlis-i-Shoora in 1980. Most of the members of the Shoora were intellectuals, scholars, ulema, journalists, economists and professionals belonging to different fields of life. As time passed, the Parliamentarians wanted to have more freedom and power. By the beginning of 1988, rumors about the differences between the Prime Minister and Zia-ul-Haq were rife. The general feeling was that the President, who had enjoyed absolute power for eight long years, was not ready to share it with anybody else. Apart from many other reasons, Junejo's decision to sign the Geneva Accord against the wishes of Zia-ul-Haq proved to be one of the major factors responsible for his removal. Zia-ul-Haq died in an air crash near Bhawalpur on August 17, 1988.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (January 5, 1928–April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977. He was the founder of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan.
Quaid-e-Awam Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto founded Pakistan People’s Party in the winter of 1967 as an answer to the dictatorial and anti-people policies of the military-bureaucratic-feudal nexus of power that ruled the country since its inception in 1947. The Party came into being with four cardinal principles i.e. Islam is our faith, democracy is our polity, socialism is our economy and all power to the people. Its program envisaged provision of basic human needs, i.e. Roti, Kupra aur Makkan (food, clothe and shelter) to every citizen of Pakistan. It advocated a just and fairer distribution of national wealth amongst various strata of the society and stood for democratic traditions, liberal values and welfare-oriented policies. The party program coupled with dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Awam captured the imagination of the people within no time and the Party emerged as the single largest party of the country.
Pakistan's third constitution was formally submitted on December 31, 1972, approved on April 10, 1973, and promulgated on Independence Day, August 14, 1973. Although Bhutto campaigned in 1970 for the restoration of a parliamentary system, by 1972 he preferred a presidential system with himself as president. Bhutto claimed success for his economic policies. The gross national product and the rate of economic growth climbed. Inflation fell from 25 percent in fiscal year 1972 to 6 percent in FY 1976, although other economic measures he introduced did not perform as well. The Nationalization Order, 1972 provided for the nationalization of industry in Iron and steel sector, basic metals, heavy engineering, heavy electrical, assembly and manufacture of motor vehicles and tractors, heavy and basic chemicals, petrochemicals, cements, public utilities, power generation, transmission and distribution, gas and oil refineries.
As president, Bhutto addressed the nation via radio and television, saying "My dear countrymen, my dear friends, my dear students, laborers, peasants… those who fought for Pakistan… We are facing the worst crisis in our country's life, a deadly crisis. We have to pick up the pieces, very small pieces, but we will make a new Pakistan, a prosperous and progressive Pakistan." He surely proved himself the best leader Pakistan had ever had.









References:
http://www.answers.com/topic/muhammad-zia-ul-haq
http://www.yespakistan.com/people/past-presidents.asp
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-year_plans_of_Pakistan
http://pkproblems.com/index.php/zia-ul-haq-economic-policies-for-pakistan-an-assessment/

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